Boletus are a kind of mushrooms from the Boletus family whose members carry the name porcini mushrooms. There are some species of the same family but a different genus, also called porcini.
In the forests of Europe, individual species mushrooms are widespread, but this very highly prized mushroom is common. Its spore-forming layer attaches to all kinds of mushrooms in the form of thick tubes. Located at the bottom of the cap we often see a round bun. The colors are thick, especially in the heart and striated with colored dots or stripes.
Types of Boletus
Normal mushroom /Boletus edulis/ - in places is known under the names mamatarka, samunka, sword mushroom. This is the most popular representative of this genus. It occurs in many parts of the world, especially widespread in the Northern Hemisphere. Hood in the young mushrooms is semi- round and subsequently spreads to a diameter that reaches 5 to 30 cm, its cap color is white to brown, and its surface is dry and relatively smooth.
Its stalk is ovoid in shape at the beginning and its height varies from 7 to 25 cm, the whole thing is covered with embossed whitish mass, which is best expressed at the top. The meat of ordinary Boletus is white and opaque. It does not change color when damaged and has a pleasant taste and aroma. In older mushrooms, the meat may resemble foam.
You may encounter this mushroom in coniferous and deciduous forests, which are both in the mountains and in the plains. Depending on weather conditions, the can be collected from May to November. It is believed that this is one of the best mushrooms because of its excellent taste and nutritional value.
Bronze mushroom /Boletus aereus/ - was also known under the name bronzie. There is a cap that reaches 20 cm, with a semi-spherical shape and tucked edges. When it reaches adulthood, it cracks and spreads. The color of skin is that of dark chocolate in a bronze tan, hence the name itself. The flesh is white, very hard, when cut or pressure- it turns yellow.
Boletus Bronze tubes are about 1.5 cm long, which are located near the stalk. The pores of the sponge is yellow, pollen spore is yellowish-green. You'll know a young mushroom gray-yellow color, while the old old nose is dark brown. Bronze mushroom is found in all the mountains in Bulgaria in all forests, but there is a preference for deciduous forests. Grow single, spring, summer and autumn.
Gray-yellow boletus /Boletus impolitus/ - inhabits forests and is widespread in most parts of Europe. Its top is with an up to 15 cm diameter at the beginning is hemispherical, later convex-convex or flat.
It is usually smooth or slightly powdrery, pale brown or gray. It does not change color in scratches. Its stalk is swollen, cylindrical or bat- like. The meat of young mushrooms is pale lemon-yellow, later becomes whitish. No changes in color when exposed to air. The aroma of young mushroom is unlimited, while the older is likened to iodine. Gray and yellow boletus inhabits mainly deciduous forests.
Pine mushroom /Boletus pinophilis/- its hat is dark red to brown, in some cases dark purple shades. The young mushroom is covered with white powder, which vanishes as it grows. Usually up to 20 cm tall, but it is possible to find them taller. The meat of the pine mushroom is thick and white, does not change color. Under the thin skin of the hat, you can see a reddish stripe. It has a pleasant taste, almost odorless. It is found in coniferous forests of spruce and pine, rarely in beech forests. Appears early in the spring and continues to grow until late autumn.
Bread Boletus /Boletus regius/ - in our known in places as the king’s mushroom. It is widespread in southern Europe. The hood is semi-sphericak in young mushrooms, and later flat with a diameter of 5 to 20 cm, its stalk tinted yellow, brownish spots are at the bottom. They have a hard and dense structure. The flesh is yellow, and the stalk - reddish. It does not change color when it has an injury, has a pleasant taste and aroma. It grows in deciduous forests.
Composition of Boletus
Boletus contains up to 35 percent complete protein, including glutamine, arginine, leucine and tyrosine. It contains high levels of vitamin PP and nicotinic acid, other micro-and macronutrients. With consumption of Boletus, the body gets B group vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E, and vitamin D.
Selecting and storing Boletus
When buying Boletus, you should note of the appearance and smell. It should not be damaged or have a bad fishy smell and appearance. If you want to start collecting these mushrooms, be very careful. Keep Boletus in a refrigerator, but best eat them as soon as you get them.
Boletus in cooking
First you have to clean and wash Boletus very well before cooking. There are certain characteristics in cleaning. Must first remove the yellowish part that is under the cap. These are the spores of fungi and have a poor consistency in cooking and take in plenty of liquids. Moreover, they have no particular taste.
Benefits of Boletus
The interior of the Boletus is well absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and does not need additional presence of gastric juices. Vitamins and substances that are found in these mushrooms make them a valuable part of a healthy diet. Nutrients absorb toxins and remove them from the body.
Dangers of Boletus
Boletus mushrooms have poisonous look-alikes, of which the most dangerous is the devil mushroom. Be careful, and if a problem occurs after eating mushrooms, you must immediately contact a doctor. In some cases, even edible mushrooms can cause stomach problems, but this is not a life-threatening condition.