Adrenaline is an important hormone and neurotransmitter, which is produced in the cells of the adrenal core, and in certain neurons of the central nervous system. From a chemical standpoint, adrenaline belongs to the group of monoamines called catecholamines.
It is synthesized from the amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine. Adrenaline is also called a stress hormone because in stress situations, synthesis of adrenaline is significantly increased.
Adrenaline and its effect in the body have been studied for a long time and it has been found that a person’s adrenaline receptors are located in almost all tissues of the body, and therefore the reaction to its effect is instantaneous.
The effect of adrenaline is quite short-lived - a mere 5 minutes. This is associated with the active processing of it by the body, because, in response to the release of adrenaline, the body activates systems for its deactivation.
The synthetic analogue of adrenaline is epinephrine. The dose and duration of treatment with epinephrine are determined by the doctor.
Norepinephrine injections are administered subcutaneously or intravenously, by qualified medical personnel. It is used for the treatment of emergency medical conditions such as anaphylactic shock, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the treatment of cardiac arrest.
Functions of adrenaline
The main function of adrenaline is to increase carbohydrate metabolism, serves as a mediator in conducting nerve impulses, excites the respiratory center, temporarily increases blood pressure sharply, slows peristalsis and increases blood sugar levels, reduces the tone of bronchial smooth muscles, increases metabolism.
Stress triggers its release from the adrenal glands. Adrenaline's mission is to mobilize the necessary energy reserves to be able to adjust the body to stressful situations.
During sports, under the influence of adrenaline, the amount of blood supplying the muscles increases. The activity of the esophagus decreases and perspiration increases, so the body can get rid of the excess stored energy.
High levels of adrenaline
Sometimes the production of adrenaline goes up randomly for no apparent reason. This causes problematic consequences that are normal for high levels of adrenaline, because the hormone is extremely important, but its overproduction impacts emotional and social behavior. Proof of this is noradrenaline - one of the derivatives of epinephrine.
Noradrenaline affects the state of wakefulness. Under stress, it is produced in increased amounts. The result of this is tossing and turning all night in bed. In sickly states, such as tumors in the adrenal glands, adrenaline become hyperactive once more.
The most typical manifestations of this overproduction are sweating, episodes of anxiety, chest cramps, severe pallor and high blood pressure. Adrenaline levels are increased in chronic stress, which leads to depression and fatigue.
According to American scientists, high levels of adrenaline reduce the chance of successful conception. For this reason, experts advise doctors to pay attention to the levels of adrenaline in women wishing to conceive.
At low levels of adrenaline, a person suffers from daily sleepiness - a condition that is not at all pleasant. From all that has been written so far, it is clear that the influence of adrenaline and its derivatives on emotional behavior, digestion, mental and physical well-being is quite huge. This means that we must learn to manage it, otherwise our lifestyle becomes significantly worse.
It is no secret that the release of adrenaline in activities such as sky diving brings incredible emotional sensations. In life, adrenaline is released through sports, recreation and activities that maintain the increased levels of adrenaline, which bear incredible sensations.
According to some authors, each person has his own standard of emotions - an emotional peak, which every person needs to reach from time to time. Failing to perform such actions can cause a person to fall into a depression.
Psychiatrists say that in about 30% of the population, the threshold for emotional reaction is very high and requires an additional stimulant to reach an emotional outburst, accompanied by the release of adrenaline.
These stimulants can be high speeds, sky diving or in other words - some sort of risk. Generally, fatigue, stress, frustration are unfamiliar to these types of people because their attitude toward life is directed elsewhere.